What is the mechanism behind allergic contact dermatitis?
Allergic contact dermatitis is an inflammatory disease of the skin that is caused by a type 4 hypersensitivity reaction. It results from the contact of an offending chemical or antigen with the skin, and the subsequent T-cell mediated response.
Is contact dermatitis an autoimmune response?
Many skin disorders, such as atopic dermatitis, contact dermatitis, urticaria, angioedema, psoriasis, and autoimmune blistering disorders, are immune mediated. Most of these diseases are chronic, inflammatory, and proliferative, in which both genetic and environmental factors play important roles.
How does contact dermatitis induce an immune response?
Contact allergens use innate immune receptors such as the Toll-like receptors TLR2 and TLR4 and the NOD-like receptor NLRP3 as part of the inflammasome as well as the induction of oxidative stress to induce skin inflammation.
Is contact dermatitis caused by antibodies?
This is an allergic condition that involves the immune system. But it does not involve the IgE antibody. The IgE antibody is responsible for classic allergic reactions. Contact dermatitis can develop right away or it can occur after months of exposure to a substance.
What are the main causes of contact dermatitis?
Allergic contact dermatitis causes include:
- Poison ivy, poison oak, and poison sumac.
- Hair dyes or straighteners.
- Nickel, a metal found in jewelry and belt buckles.
- Leather (specifically, chemicals used in tanning leather)
- Latex rubber.
- Citrus fruit, especially the peel.
How does contact dermatitis occur?
Contact dermatitis is caused by a substance you’re exposed to that irritates your skin or triggers an allergic reaction. The substance could be one of thousands of known allergens and irritants. Some of these substances may cause both irritant contact dermatitis and allergic contact dermatitis.
What cells are involved in contact dermatitis?
Other T-cell types such as Tregulatory cells and the IL-10 secreting Tregulatory cells type I are likely to be important in the control (resolution) of allergic contact dermatitis. Other cell types that may contribute include B-cells and hapten-specific IgM.
What causes allergic contact dermatitis?
ACD is mainly driven by T cells and its pathophysiology is divided into two phases, namely the sensitization and the elicitation/challenge phase (Figure 1). After penetrating the skin, contact allergens modify self-proteins into immunogenic proteins.
What is an autoimmune skin disease?
When your body’s natural defense system attacks healthy cells in your body, you are suffering from an autoimmune disorder. There are several common autoimmune diseases that affect the skin. These include vitiligo, scleroderma, lupus, psoriasis and vasculitis.
Does dermatitis affect the immune system?
Atopic dermatitis is an immunological disease, which means it involves the immune system. With atopic dermatitis, your immune system is highly sensitive and can react to even the smallest allergens or irritants. This can cause inflammation underneath your skin, which may lead to frequent flare-ups.
What is the most common cause of allergic contact dermatitis?
Nickel. Nickel is the most frequent cause of allergic contact dermatitis. Between 8% and 11% of women have this allergy.